Death of Chadwick Boseman:-
He was an American Actor And had studied directing from Howard University.
However he came into first landing role in “Persons Unknown” in 2010.
Featuring in one of the best series of Avengers called as “Black Panther” .
Unfortunately he died on 28th august 2020 due to colon cancer . As
He was diagnosed with this disease called colon cancer since 4 years as he did not inform the outer world.
Earlier According to his tweet he had diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer but it went on to stage 4 in 2020 year.
Lets see what is colon and what is colon cancer and how you can prevent from it.
What is a colon?
If you were to lay your digestive tractout in a straight line, it would form a tube spanning nearly ten meters.
So the last approximately 1.5 meters of Gastrointestinal Tract are called the colon, or large intestine.
How it occurs :-
Cells in this organ’s lining constantly renew themselves, but the genes that moderate this processoccasionally go awry, leading to the excessive growth of new cells.
That results in small growths or abnormal clumps of cells called polyps.
The majority of these polyps won’t do any harm, but some can become cancerous when their cells begin to grow and divide rapidly, projecting further into the colon.
At that point, they can transform into colon cancer, one of the most prevalent and preventable forms of cancer in the world.
That’s a slow process: though growth times vary, it often takes around ten years for a small polyp to grow and develop into a cancerous one.
Currently We do not know the exact cause of the majority of colon polyps and colon cancers.
Generally we know that colon cancer involves the activation of oncogenes in the polyp, and the loss of tumor-suppressor genes that regulates the cancer cells.
Most cells have proto-oncogenes that help them grow.
When a proto-oncogene starts mutating, it can becomes a permanent active oncogene with cells that grows and thus cannot be controlled.
While we don’t yet know exactly what underlying factors cause these changes, experts suspect a combinationof both environmental and inherited genetic factors.
In the worst cases, when cells within polyps divide and spread unchecked, they eventually break through the lining of the colon.
Lymph and blood vessels carry those cells all over the body, and they can go on to form tumors.
Stages of colon cancer:-
Stage 0 colon cancer:-
Here the colon cancer occurs in the wall of colon or the mucosa .
Polypectomy is done here to remove the cancerous or the malgnant cells .
Stage 1 colon cancer:-
Now the cancer cells has entered the submucosa . Submucosa is found beneath mucosa .
Surgery could take place . Also know as the colectomy.
Stage 2 colon cancer:-
Cancer cells has travelled beyond the colon but not affected the lymph nodes.
Here also surgery can be performed .But mainly chemotherapy could be performed. If this also is unsuccessful then radiation therapy can be performed to remove the dangerous cells.
Stage 3 colon cancer:-
Now the cancer has spread till the lymph nodes.
Radiation is recommended here. But doctors need to check that the patient is healthy or not before performing this therapy.
Stage 4 Colon cancer:-
The cancer has spread till the bloodstream and the lymph nodes as well.
Here first ,surgery which is followed by chemotherapy . It helps to shrink down the cancerous cells. And tumours as well.
So, who’s at risk?
People aged around 50 years or older are more prone to it.
This group is considered at average risk for colon cancer or colon polyps.
There’s also a higher risk group
that includes people with personal or family histories of colon polyps or cancer, and those who suffer from inherited genetic syndromes, or inflammatory diseases, like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
So the best age to initiate screening varies from person to person.
If you have access to healthcare, it’s best to consult a doctor to find out when you should begin. Screening can be done with various tests.
Colonoscopy involves a long, thin, flexible tube that’s fitted with a video cameraand light at the end and placed internally to examinethe colon for polyps.
If polyps are found, a doctor can do a polypectomy, a procedure that removes polyps from the colonic wall.
Doctors can also then test the polyp for cancerous cells. Colonoscopy is the only test that can be used to both find and remove polyps.
However, there are other useful screening tests which includes imaging and at-home tests that can allow patients to examine their stool for small amounts of blood.
Many a times polyps are too large to be removed during a colonoscopy, so, the next step to be taken is surgery.
If blood and imaging tests then reveal that cancerous cells have spread outside the colon, then a special treatment,like chemotherapy, may also be required to stop the cancer from escalating.
We can also take on certain habits to reduce our likelihood of developing colon cancer in the first place.
Despite these challenges,there’s a solution.
We’ve become extremely good at detecting and removing offending polyps before they can cause cancer.
This happens through a process called screening, and when we do it regularly ,we can prevent many cases of colon cancer.
Prevention of colon cancer:-
Limiting the consumption of alcohol and smoking as well.
Getting regular exercise to maintain that healthy weight.
Exercising can include cardio as well as resistance training. Its all up to your condition that what suits you the most.
There’s evidence that maintaining a healthy weight, can help.
But most important regular screenings at hospitals or any nursing care can be crucial at times in life are the best ways to prevent colon cancer.