Dial test is Basically , done for posterior knee dysfunction and posterior cruciate ligament injuries.
Other test for PCL ligaments are also available.
Like:– Sag test- Reverse Lachman test- Posterior Drawer test.
Clinical relevant anatomy ?
PCL ligament connects the posterior intercondylar area of tibia till the medial condyle of femur.
This joint serves a connection between hip and ankle.
And responsible for proper biomechanical alignment of these joints.
Action of PCL Ligaments?
Basically, it prevents the posterior translation of knee joint.
Also, its function is the external rotation at knee joint.
Thus acting as a secondary stabilizer of the knee preventing excessive external rotation of between 90- 120 degree .
Usually with the ACL injury, an Injured PCL can cause increased anterior translation of the knee.
Minor role in tibial internal rotation and in preventing Posterior tibial translation.
Done for diagnosis of pathologies of , lumbar but mainly sacroiliac region.
The Dial test relevancy is quite high and has quite good results in Clinics and hospitals.
Purpose of This test?
The purpose of the Dial Test is to diagnose Posterolateral Knee Instability, and Posterior Cruciate Ligament injury.
And if produces pain ,if there is any underlying pathology .
Dial test can be done for guidance to practitioner , clinicians and further imaging can be done .
Also read about:- Standing Flexion Test
Technique for this Dial test?
To perform this test, take the patient in prone position.
Check the alignment of – pelvis – hip – ankle – knee.
Ask the patient to flex the knee at 30 ° and 90 ° of knee flexion.
The clinician should put the hands on beneath the foot.
Then external rotation force is applied , and Foot thigh angle is measured.
Then the knee is flexed till 90 ° and external rotation force is applied and thigh foot angle is measured.
Evaluation of dial test ?
So basically there are 2 types of interpretation can be done .
Injury to PCL- More than 10° of external rotation of knee , present at 90 ° of knee flexion only.
And if knee rotates more than 10 ° of external rotation at foot when knee is flexed at 30° , then there is problem in popletius corner.
Relevancy of Dial test?
More evidence has been found for this test.
So basically, the crux is that research and reports suggested that this dial test is very much relevant .
The main scientist who performed this test and did research about it was KRAUSE ET AL.
To calculate the external rotation, hand held digital inclinometer.
So all the articles suggested that it is very much relevant but more further studies are required.